Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Facts
Features cause, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, complications, treatment, and

  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized illness that is usually spread by the bite of an infected tick

  • Anyone who is exposed to areas where ticks live or to pets with ticks is at risk for Rocky Mountain spotted fever

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever is treatable with antibiotics

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever can be prevented by: 1) avoiding tick bites, 2) removing attached ticks promptly, and 3) getting early diagnosis and treatment

  • What is Rocky Mountain spotted fever? Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is usually spread to people by the bite of infected ticks

  • What is the infectious agent that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever? Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a specialized bacteria

  • Where is Rocky Mountain spotted fever found? Rocky Mountain spotted fever is found throughout the United States, except in Maine, Alaska, and Hawaii

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever is spread by the American dog tick, the lone-star tick, and the wood tick, all of which like to live in wooded areas and tall, grassy fields

    Ehrlichiosis Facts
    Newly discovered rickettsial diseases transmitted by ticks. Includes symptoms,
    treatment, and prevention.

  • What are the signs and symptoms of ehrlichiosis? The disease is similar to Rocky Mountain spotted fever and can be severe and life-threatening

  • The most common symptoms are sudden high fever, tiredness, major muscle aches, severe headache, and, in some cases, a rash

    eMedicine - Tick-Borne Diseases, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever ...
    Detailed article from about the background, symptoms, and treatment
    of this rickettsial infection.

  • As one of the spotted fevers, it belongs to a large group of tick- and mite-borne infections caused by closely related rickettsiae

  • Eventually, progression to the classic petechial rash of RMSF usually occurs, although from 10-15% of patients will not have any clinically apparent dermatologic involvement (Rocky Mountain spotless fever)

  • Internationally: Rickettsial spotted fever group infections have been extensively documented in Mexico and South America, southern Africa, and Asia, but RMSF occurs only in the western hemisphere

  • The true incidence of spotted fever infections internationally is not known

  • Fever greater than 102°F - 94% of reported cases Fever within 3 days after tick bite - 66% of reported cases Headache, frequently severe - 86% of reported cases Myalgias - 85% of reported cases CNS - 25% of patients develop signs of encephalitis (ie, confusion, lethargy)

  • Rash Rash affects 85-90% of patients overall, usually after onset of fever, headache, myalgias, and GI symptoms

  • Approximately 10-15% of patients have Rocky Mountain spotless fever

  • Spotless fever is not synonymous with mild or early illness because substantial proportions of the deaths occur in patients without a rash

    eMedicine - Mediterranean Spotted Fever : Article by Jason F ...
    Article by Pierre A Dorsainvil, MD. Also known as boutonneuse fever, is transmitted
    by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

  • The etiologic agent for this infection is Rickettsia conorii , which also is the agent for Marseilles fever, Kenya tick typhus, South African tick bite fever, Indian tick typhus, and Israeli tick typhus

  • The tache noire at the site of the tick bite seldom, if ever, is observed in Israeli spotted fever

  • Mediterranean spotted fever and African tick bite fever are different illnesses in the same geographic area

  • African tick bite fever differs from Mediterranean spotted fever in having local adenopathy and multiple eschars

  • Frequency: In the US: Mediterranean spotted fever is uncommon in the United States

  • A similar disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is found in the United States

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii , for which the ixodid tick is the vector

  • Internationally: Mediterranean spotted fever, caused by R conorii , is prevalent in southern Europe, Africa, and Central Asia, including India

  • Mortality/Morbidity: Until recently, Mediterranean spotted fever was characterized as a benign rickettsiosis; however, Guillain-Barré syndrome, polyneuropathy, altered mental status, hepatomegaly, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia, hypoxemia, and death have been reported


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    Rocky Mountain spotted fever - Onmeda: Medizin und Gesundheit
    Sehr ausführliche Darstellung des in einigen Ländern sehr häufigen Rocky Montain
    Fieber durch Onmeda. Vor allem für Fernreisende und in den betroffenen Ländern ...

  • • • • Sie befinden sich hier: Suche Onmeda Arzneimittel Computer-Bild, Ausgabe 18/2006, Testergebnis 'gut' Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rocky Mountains Das Rocky Mountain spotted fever ist eine ernst zunehmende, akut verlaufende Infektionskrankheit, die fast ausschließlich in Nordamerika auftritt

  • Rocky Mountain spotted fever Überblick • • • • • • • • • • Partnerangebote: • • • • • Wie bewerten Sie diese Seite? sehr gut schlecht Thema der Seite: © OnVista Media GmbH, Geändert am: 23.05.2005 - Dieser Beitrag wurde von den im genannten Fachärzten, Apothekern und Wissenschaftlern des jeweiligen Bereiches erstellt und vom Redaktionsteam didaktisch überarbeitet

    MedlinePlus: Tick Bites
    Information about ticks and tick-borne diseases from Medline Plus.

    Postgraduate Medicine: Patient Notes: Tick-borne illness
    Factsheet on preventing tick borne disease.

    Bacterial Infections and Mycoses
    Compilation of medical microbiology and infectious diseases sites.

  • (US) [in German; Wilske and Fingerle] - LymeNet - Heidelberg (DE) On the , and the - NIAID/NIH - HealthLinks - FDA News, Jul 2006 EU Concerted including - (UK) Images of - (DE) The - (US) [for physicians] - ILADS (US) [case report; Ledbetter et al.] - PostgradMed, May 2000 [A Doherty] - Museum of Science - (FR) Relapsing Fever - Hendrick Health System [JA Edlow] - e-medicine About [N Chamberlain] - Kirksville College (US) Brucellosis - N Y State Dept

  • - - Calgary (CA) [microprahps] Typhoid Fever About [Fact Sheet] - New York State Dept

  • About - Virtual Museum of Bacteria , image - Univ of New Mexico Fusobacteriaceae Infections Fusobacterium Infections Brief note about organisms - Houston Medical School (US) Rat-Bite Fever About - Adam, via MedlinePlus [GJ Tritz] - Medical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases/Univ of Florida (US) Legionellosis A fact sheet about - New York State Dept

  • (US) [Baseman and Tully] - CDC/EID, 1997 Pseudomonas Infections About [K Todar] - Univ of Wisconsin-Madison (US) [GJ Tritz] - Topics in Infect Dis Newsletter, Aug 2001 (AU) Lessons in - Nat'l Institute for Virology, Witwatersrand (ZA) Q Fever About [K Taylor] - HealthNet, Victoria (AU) On in Australia [J Ferguson] - HAPS (AU) [Anderson et al.] - EID, Aug 2005 About a - MMWR Rat-Bite Fever See Rickettsiaceae Infections Rickettsia Infections - Merck Manual/Home Edition [DH Walker] - Medical Microbiology/Ed

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    Lyme Disease - Cause - Symptoms - Diagnosis - Treatment - Lyme ... page with links to news, information, and support for patients with
    Lyme disease.

  • Primary Lyme disease is a flu-like illness with fever, chills, and muscle aches, occurs in about 50% of those infected with Lyme disease

  • It is similar in shape to thespirochetes that cause other diseases, such as relapsing fever and syphilis

  • Ticks are important because they can carry diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, Lyme disease, and others

  • Diseases carried by ticks include Lyme disease, Erlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colorado Tick Fever, tularemia, typhus, hemorrhagic fever, and viral encephalitis

  • (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.) Diseases are often carried by ticks, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colorado Tick Fever, Lyme disease, and tularemia

  • Less common or less frequent diseases include typhus, Q-fever, relapsing fever, viral encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever, and babesiosis

    THE MERCK MANUAL, Sec. 13, Ch. 159, Rickettsial Diseases
    Provides detailed information on each of these conditions, including symtpoms,
    diagnosis, treatment and public health implications.

  • Rickettsial Diseases Topics [General] Rickettsial diseases (rickettsioses): Various illnesses caused by rickettsiae and manifested by sudden onset, a course of fever of one to several weeks, headache, malaise, prostration, peripheral vasculitis, and, in most cases, a characteristic rash

  • Rickettsioses comprise four groups: typhus--epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, murine (endemic) typhus, and scrub typhus; spotted fever--Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Eastern tick-borne rickettsiosis, and rickettsialpox; Q fever; and trench fever

  • Any seriously ill patient who lives in or near a wooded area and has unexplained fever, headache, and prostration, with or without a history of tick contact, should be suspected of having Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)

  • Local eschars occur in patients with scrub typhus, rickettsialpox, and, occasionally, the spotted fevers

  • In Q fever, a rash is unusual; in trench fever, sparse

  • Spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae have two types of complement fixation (CF) antigens; the soluble fraction is common to all members of the group, whereas purified fractions are more specific for individual rickettsiae

    Species Jump: Human Ehrlichiosis- Mutant or Emergence?
    Research article on the disease. Includes organism description, similar organisms,
    symptoms, bibliography, and speculation on the origin of the rickettsia.

  • Ehrlichia are gram negative, nonmotile, obligate intracellular coccobacilli belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae with much similarity both in structure and disease to the pathogens responsible for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Q-fever, and Typhus

  • Clinical Signs and Symptoms: Physical symptoms of ehrlichiosis are initially vague and resemble any number of common, milder illnesses, or then can present headache and fever which is often unresponsive to analgesics and antipyretics

  • Maculpapular rash resembling Rocky Mountain Spotted fever is present in about half of all cases

  • Due to the vague nature of symptoms and similarities to other illnesses, differential diagnoses is most often Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

  • There are approximately 50 cases every year, although the accuracy of this figure is questionable due to the fact that few physicians recognize it and instead document another disease such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever

  • sennetsu was first documented in Japan in 1954 as the causitive agent for a mononucleosis-like syndrome called Sennetsu fever

  • risticii, a species responsible for Potomac horse fever and some canine infections

    Factsheet with brief discussions on tick-borne diseases.

  • Fever and paralysis also may develop after tick bites, although paralyis is rare

  • Tick-borne diseases include: Babesiosis Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis Tularemia Colorado tick fever Human monocytic ehrlichiosis Relapsing fever Ticks live in tall grass and in wooded areas, particularly cool, moist, mature woods with thick undergrowth

  • However, the following symptoms can develop as a reaction to tick secretions: Fever Headache Muscle pain Joint pain Fatigue Muscle weakness Skin reactions include: Pus-filled bumps Hardened skin elevations Nodules (granulomas) that, in rare cases, can grow large enough to require surgical removal Tick paralysis is relatively rare

  • Common symptoms include high fever, headache, fatigue, nausea, weight loss and a spotted rash

  • Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis � Symptoms ranging from mild to severe include high fever, headache, a general sick feeling (malaise), achy muscles (myalgia), nausea, vomiting, cough, stiff neck and confusion

  • Colorado tick fever � Flulike symptoms include fever and chills, severe headache, achy muscles (myalgia), stiff neck, light intolerance and, in some cases, a spotted rash


    Medmicro Chapter 38
    Scientific and medical information on the organisms and the diseases they cause.

  • Rickettsia Clinical Manifestations Rickettsia species cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever, rickettsialpox, other spotted fevers, epidemic typhus, and murine typhus

  • This genus consists of two antigenically defined groups: spotted fever group and typhus group, which are related; scrub typhus rickettsiae differ in lacking lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, and a slime layer, and belong in the separate, although related, genus Orientia

  • Ehrlichia Clinical Manifestations Ehrlichia species cause ehrlichioses that vary in severity from a life-threatening febrile disease that resembles Rocky Mountain spotted fever, except for less frequent rash, to an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome

  • Coxiella Clinical Manifestations Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, which may present as an acute febrile illness with pneumonia or as a chronic infection with endocarditis

  • In the few patients who develop serious chronic Q fever, heart valves contain organisms within macrophages

  • Epidemiology Q fever is found worldwide

  • Control Antibiotics are effective against acute Q fever

  • Bartonella Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana , the agent of trench fever, was formerly considered as a rickettsial agent

    GORP - Tick-Borne Diseases In North America
    Discusses several tick-borne illnesses and how they affect people enjoying outdoor

  • All of the major tick-borne diseases in North America are transmitted by Ixodes ticks except for relapsing fever

  • The organism causing Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever needs only the tick population to sustain the life cycle

  • The deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) has long been known to transmit Lyme disease and the dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) has been associated with Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Tick-Borne Disease Education
    Directory of factsheets, articles, and educational materials.

    Fighting Fleas and Ticks
    Article from the US Food and Drug Administration about treating fleas and ticks.

  • Other flea bite problems and their symptoms include: anemia in young, older or ill pets--pale gums, weakness, lethargy transmission of tapeworm to pets--irritability, erratic appetite, shaggy coat, mild diarrhea, weight loss, seizures transmission by rodent fleas of plague to cats--fever, swollen lymph nodes, mouth sores, swollen tongue, cough, pneumonia

  • Ticks may carry various infectious organisms that can transmit diseases to cats and dogs, including the following (listed with possible symptoms): babesiosis--lethargy, appetite loss, weakness, pale gums ehrlichiosis--high fever, muscle aches Lyme disease--lameness, swollen joints, fever, poor appetite, fatigue, and vomiting (some infected animals show no symptoms) tick paralysis in dogs--gradual paralysis, seen first as an unsteady gait from uncoordinated back legs (some infected dogs don't develop paralysis)

  • (There's no vaccine for cats yet.) Watch for itching, pain, appetite loss, lethargy, fever, swollen joints, or lameness

  • Symptoms include fatigue, chills and fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, swollen lymph nodes, and a red, circular skin rash

  • (See "Getting Lyme Disease to Take a Hike, " in the June 1994 FDA Consumer.) The next most prevalent disease from ticks is Rocky Mountain spotted fever, characterized by fever, headache, rash, and nausea or vomiting

    Lyme Disease Foundation
    Includes details about the organization, diseases, ticks, education, journals,
    conferences, research, vaccines and personal stories.

  • Tick-borne disorders include: babesiosis, cat scratch disease (Bartonella), ehrlichiosis, Colorado tick fever, Lyme disease, Masters' disease, Query fever (potential biowarfare agent), Powassan encephalitis, relapsing fever (potential biowarfare agent), Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tick paralysis, & tularemia (potential biowarfare agent)

    Toxic Shock Syndrome
    A description of the illness, causes, treatments and prevention advice from the
    Ohio State University Medical Center.

    Communicable Disease
    Directory of factsheets on infectious diseases, plus press releases.

    Directory of factsheets covering common infections affecting children.


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